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As students learn about the history of the world and the government of the United States, there are a number of vocabulary terms that they will be asked to learn, understand, and use. The lists below indicate the terms introduced in different assessment cycles in the various classes. Students are expected to treat these terms and their meanings as cumulative learning goals; that is, they are expected to understand and use older terms as they continue to learn new ones. 
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CE A chronological designation meaning “common era. ” This label corresponds to AD (Anno Domini)  History 
AD Abbreviation for Anno Domini ("In the year of our Lord"), used to indicate years in the Gregorian calendar system History 
BC Abbreviation for Before Christ, used to indicate years in the Gregorian calendar system History 
BCE A chronological designation meaning “before the common era. ” This label corresponds to B.C. (before Christ)  History 
Causal Why something happened History 
Turning point Where the direction things were headed undergo a major and radical change.  History 
Currency Any item used as a common element of exchange in trade; coins, paper money, checks, etc. are all examples. Economics 
Debasement Altering coins or paper currency to make it worth more than it is; when discovered, it hurts the value of all similar types of money.  Economics 
Abundance Oversufficient supply or quantity of something; having more than needed Economics 
Trade The exchange of goods and services for money or other goods and services. Economics 
Scarcity The condition that exists because human wants exceed the capacity of available resources to satisfy those wants Economics 
Incentives Promises of rewards or punishments that encourage people to act. Economics 
Benefit Monetary or non-monetary gain received because of an action taken or a decision made Economics 
Cost An amount that must be paid or spent to buy or obtain something; the effort, loss, or sacrifice necessary to achieve or obtain something.  Economics 
Consequence The events that happen as a result of a particular action or event. Economics 
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